Best Practice Peer Review Policy Terms: At http://journalauthors.tandf.co.uk/review/peer.asp , Taylor & Francis Author Services offers the following definitions of peer review: “Under single-blind review the reviewer's name is hidden from the author. Under double-blind review the identity of the reviewers and the authors are hidden from each other. This level of anonymity is designed to encourage fairness, with papers being considered on their individual merits.” The American Philosophical Association advocates “author-anonymous” review at http://www.apaonline.org/APAOnline/About_The_APA/Statements/Guidelines/Anonymous_Review_of_Manuscripts.aspx for journal publications and conferences “in assuring fairness and eliminating possible bias.” The European Peer Review Guide at http://www.vr.se/download/18.2ab49299132224ae10680001647/1315408483304/European+Peer+Review+Guide.pdf includes among its Core Principles of Peer Review “2. Impartiality: All proposals submitted must be treated equally. They should be evaluated on their merits, irrespective of their origin or the identity of the applicants.“ The term “blind review” is therefore ambiguous. Table 1 below uses the following disambiguating definitions in analyzing journals’ explicit paper submission policy statements:
•No Comprehensive Blind Review Policy =df. either no mention of any kind of blind review; or only intermittent blind review of some kind, dependent on circumstance or preference; or only single-blind review (= only referees are anonymized).
•Only Prepare Paper for Author-Anonymous Review =df. consistent and impartial paper preparation instructions anonymizing author, but no explicitly stated commitment to blind refereeing or double-blind review itself.
•Explicit Unspecified Blind Review =df. explicitly stated commitment to blind review of some kind, but unspecified whether author or referee or both are blind.
•Explicit Author-Anonymous Review =df. explicitly specifies that referee, not author, is blind.
•Explicit Double-Blind Review =df. explicitly stated, consistent and impartial commitment to both blind author (= anonymous referee(s)) and also blind referee(s) (= anonymous author).
•Explicit Strict Blind Submission Procedure =df. explicitly stated, consistent and impartial commitment to blind author, blind referees, and blind journal administrators and representatives (editors, assistants, interns, etc.).
TABLE 1 indicates that 81.8% of all English-language philosophy journals state no explicit commitment to double-blind review. Of course actual practice may diverge from stated policy, unless the entire review procedure from author to referee has been computerized so as to ensure conformity with stated policy.